Non-obstructive azoospermia causes

Non-obstructive azoospermia causes- no sperm count

Low sperm count is one of the causes in couples who have problem to get pregnant. Azoospermia means no sperm cell presence in semen fluid or lack of sperm cells in semen.


Sperm concentration also called sperm count is sperm cell number per mL of semen. Semen concentration is measured in semen analysis test. Your doctor may recommend you semen analysis test for male type infertility diagnosis. Semen analysis test evaluates the features of semen fluid and sperm cells. Semen analysis test has sub topics as listed;


  • Semen volume
  • Sperm concentration ( sperm count)
  • Total sperm count
  • Sperm morphology ( sperm shape)
  • Sperm motility ( sperm cell movement ability)
  • Semen pH ; acidity level of semen fluid
  • Semen WBC ( white blood cell ) count
  • Semen appearance-color
  • Semen liquefaction time

In azoospermia condition there are no sperm cells in semen fluid and this is related with 20% of male infertility cases. Reference range for sperm concentration is accepted at least 15 million sperm cells per mL of semen fluid

( according to WHO). In azoospermia cases there is semen fluid but no sperm cell ejaculated in it.


There 2 types of azoospermia

  1. Obstructive azoospermia
  2. Non-obstructive azoospermia

Causes of non-obstructive azoospermia

  • Genetic causes like Klienfelter syndrome, bilateral anorchia, monogenic disorders, etc
  • Varicocele is the most common infertility condition in male and may be treated by surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Toxins
  • Heavy metals like mercury, lead
  • Medications like anabolic steroids and testosterone supplements
  • Undescended testis
  • Testis tumors
  • Kalmann syndrome ; delayed or absent puberty
  • Surgical operations of pituitary
  • Idiopathic
  • Endocrine disorders, hormone imbalances
  • Viral diseases that affect testis like mumps