Sperm count directly affects fertility in men. Sperm count decreases with age, also environmental factors speed up this decrease more. Total sperm count means the sperm number in a semen sample that ejaculated at one time. Total sperm count is calculated by multiplying the sperm concentration and semen volume mL value.
Sperm concentration is sperm cell number per mL of semen fluid. In normal conditions, a semen sample contains at least 15 million sperm cells per mL of semen fluid. Total sperm count is expected at least 39 million sperm cells in a whole semen sample. There are some factors that that affect sperm count as listed
Men have biological clock too like women. Studies show that ,men’s reproductive potential decreases after 35 years old. Pregnancy chance decreases if woman is under 30 and man is older than 40 years old. Sperm count and sperm quality decreases in men with age.
Tight clothes are one the most important environmental factors that affect sperm count. Tight clothes hold testes closer to your body and increases testicular temperature. Testes are located out of your body because body temperature is high for your sperm cells. 35 °C is the ideal temperature for sperm cells to protect sperm count.
Undescended testes problem is found 3-4% of the male babies and problem corrects itself in one year. Rarely undescended testes problem stays until puberty. Testes can’t produce sperm and problem should be treated by surgery.
Chemotherapy and radiotherapy affect sperm production and sperm count. Men may have erection problem after prostate cancer surgery. Sperm cryopreservation ( sperm freezing) may be a solution to protect sperm cells before treatment because some type of medication may disrupt sperm production.
There are so many diseases that may affect male fertility. Cardiovascular diseases may affect erection and cause sexual dysfunction. Uncontrolled diabetes is the most important disease that cause erectile dysfunction. Early diagnosis and treatment is so important to protect your sperm cells and fertility.
Some type of medication may affect sperm production and fertility like antibiotics. For exp. erythromycin has toxic effect for sperm cells. Some type of medication may reduce libido, cause erection problem and may prevent sperm cells to ejaculate and move out.
Varicocele is the enlargement of the veins around the testes. Varicocele increases the temperature of the testes and decreases sperm count and sperm quality.
Ejaculatory duct obstruction
Ejaculatory ducts ( semen canals) may be obstructed by some diseases like infections. Sperm cells can’t transport to the ducts from testes. Obstruction may be caused by trauma or may be congenital. You should be careful about STI ( sexually transmitted diseases) to protect your sperm cells.